'Bitcoin creator' boasts about wealth, slams critics ...

Creator of Dogecoin says Bitcoin coopted by early adopters to sustain their inflated wealth

Creator of Dogecoin says Bitcoin coopted by early adopters to sustain their inflated wealth submitted by financepk to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

An Ethereum based work of art just sold for $100K. A bit of hype right now around NFTs, but Ethereum's high-end crypto art market is actually really interesting. Overview here.

An Ethereum based work of art just sold for $100K. A bit of hype right now around NFTs, but Ethereum's high-end crypto art market is actually really interesting. Overview here.
With DeFi markets sputtering earlier this week, crypto twitter seemed to suddenly shift its attention to the next shiny new thing this week: NFTs, or non-fungible tokens.
But NFTs aren’t new. In crypto, the concept has been around for over 5 years. However, this market cycle, they are inherently more interesting. Today, I’ll briefly sum up what NFTs are and dig into one fascinating aspect of this market: high-end crypto art.
What are NFTs
Items that are fungible can be replaced with another identical item without anyone caring. For example, any $5 bill can buy a hotdog just as effectively as any other. Bitcoin, ether and pretty much any crypto asset you see on messari.io fall into the “fungible” bucket.
Items that are non-fungible are unique and can’t be exchanged 1 to 1. The simplest example being art. Try asking the people at the Louvre to swap your 5 year-old’s crudely painted hand-turkey with the Mona Lisa and you’ll experience true non-fungibility.
https://preview.redd.it/wabbc50v0cp51.png?width=599&format=png&auto=webp&s=22a525f284411f461d4d8399d76b840e8dad10fa
So in the crypto world, NFTs are simply tokens that represent something unique. Unsurprisingly, NFTs attached to unique pieces of purely digital artwork are gaining steam.
Crypto’s Art Scene
In many ways, much of crypto is simply the recreation of existing human behaviors in a purely digital environment. Markets. Trading. Lending. Borrowing. Speculation. As such, it should be no surprise that markets have formed around trading and speculating on works of digital art.
Like NFTs, crypto art markets have been around for years. As with NFTs and DeFi as a whole, the underlying technology is much more mature this cycle. Add in the fact that there’s a ton of freshly created wealth in the space from DeFi’s casino summer, and you get a crypto art market that’s heating up. After all, investors need to park all those DeFi gains somewhere.
Nowhere is this combination of technological sophistication and wealth on display than in this piece from Matt Kane titled, “Right Place - Right Time” that sold for almost $100K on a platform called Async Art.
https://preview.redd.it/qq5j33ua1cp51.png?width=2048&format=png&auto=webp&s=82833bb1eeb4af49f53e2c171fc8da93f32d1688
Right Place - Right Time
If you look at the above screenshot of Matt Kane’s work, it just looks like a cool piece of Bitcoin art. What’s under the hood is what makes it interesting. Kane wrote an algorithm that’s tied into a BTC pricing feed. Every 12 hours, the algorithm updates the piece based on Bitcoin’s volatility from that day, which you can see on display in this GIF.
In addition to being an evolving work of art, there are a few other components that make this interesting. For one, Kane has retained an ownership token that allows him to fine-tune the piece over time - a novel aspect of NFT based artwork that allows the artist to retain some level of control over the work. Artwork no longer has to remain static, and instead, can adapt and evolve as an artist builds upon their work over time.
Secondly, as this piece responds to the rhythms of bitcoin volatility, it will mint 210 individual NFTs based on significant days of movement. For example, say BTC hit’s $20K, a new NFT will be minted and sold based on what the piece looks like on that day. Whoever buys that NFT will have the ability to claim a physical print version.
The next point of interest are the rights baked into the sale. The work was purchased by a collector going by the name of TokenAngels. As the piece generates and sells new NFTs, TokenAngels will receive 21% of each new sale. So in addition to the potential for the work to increase in value, it’s also a productive asset. Again, something fundamentally new, all codified into the underlying work
A Shift in the Balance
Traditional art is a $65 Billion dollar market, with the balance of power firmly in the hands of wealthy collectors.
There was an infamous contemporary art sale in the 1970’s by a collector named Robert Scull. Scull bought up works from living artists around the world from $600-$10,000 and then sold them at auction for many multiples of his purchasing price. All-in-all, Scull’s total collection sold for an unheard of $2.2M ($14.7 million adjusted for inflation today).
While this auction is credited for the birth of the highly speculative contemporary art market, Scull was criticized for how little of the windfall went to the actual artists. For example, Scull bought a piece from an artist named Robert Rauschenberg called, “Thaw” for $900 and sold it for $85,000. Rauschenberg didn’t see a dime in royalties.
NFTs come with the benefit of more artist-friendly terms, leading to a shift in the balance of power between artist and collector. Note that TokenAngels receives 21% of the residual NFT sales from Matt Kane’s piece, not 100%. Similarly, an NFT art marketplace called SuperRare bakes a 10% creator royalty commission into all secondary sales - something Robert Rauschenberg would have appreciated in 1973.
A New Frontier
More artist-friendly terms along with curated marketplaces like SuperRare and Async Art are attracting a flood of new artists into the space. For a profession that’s notoriously impoverished, the allure of large amounts of money sloshing around these markets make crypto art even harder to ignore.
In addition to Matt Kane, we’re already seeing early signs of a new breed of artists. Another name gaining steam is an artist that goes by the name of Pak. In true crypto fashion, Pak is completely anonymous and there’s speculation over whether their art is the product of one person or of artificial-intelligence produced by a collective of engineers. Pak has over 140K twitter followers and has sold over $350K in NFT artwork, including this piece that recently went for around $10K.
Given that this is crypto, it’s also worth noting just how ripe these markets are for manipulation. Imagine how easy it would be for a whale to purchase a Pak piece for $10K, sell it to a friend for $25K, buy it back for $50K and then sell it to an unsuspecting speculator for $100K. Wash trading has already become problematic on a platform called Rarible and undoubtedly is taking place. (Rarible has recently introduced platform fees in order to disincentivize wash trading, although it likely won’t be a bullet-proof solution to the problem).
What’s Next
Wash trading aside, all of this speaks to the fact that the NFT hype isn’t without merit. These are new behaviors uniquely made possible through new marketplaces primarily built on Ethereum. And crypto art is only the beginning.
NFTs can and will be used to represent other non-fungible items. The obvious being other forms of creative outputs like music. Less obvious but equally intriguing are financial contracts like insurance. Imagine taking out a policy on your work of art that insures against loss of the work’s private keys.
The integration of DeFi primitives into the NFT space is accelerating rapidly. For example, using a platform called NFTfi, you can now post your NFT as collateral and take out an ETH denominated loan. Another platform, Niftex enables NFT holders to fractionalize their assets into multiple tradeable tokens. While these applications are new, it’s not hard to see them taking off alongside the rest of the crypto art and NFT market.
In a few decades, the rise of Ethereum art markets might be comparable to Robert Scull’s introduction of the speculative contemporary art market. The key difference is that this time, artists will be well compensated for their work. Perhaps the masterpieces of the future will be on display in galleries held in metaverses like Decentraland, each insured by NFT policies, on loan from the collector with the original artists still collecting royalties on their work years after inception.
Source: Messari
Stay up on all-things NFT
Mason Nystrom has been a great source for all-things Web 3 and NFTs, so give him a follow on twitter,
More resources (paywall warning)

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How to dive deep into political theory and philosophy: The Bread List

This is a curated collection of (largely) contemporary thinkers, books and video content aimed as a reference for questions like -
"What should I read next?", "Who should I follow?" or "What are the best resources for [certain political topic]?"
The core list comes from Noam Chomsky, and the books and people he's cited or praised. But the list has significantly expanded since then. Feel free to comment about any good books or channels you think should be on this list.
BreadTube discord here: https://discord.gg/ynn9rHE
Journalists
Start off with:
Adam H Johnson - Propaganda Model, Media Critique at FAIR
Nathan J Robinson - Journalist, Current Affairs
Glenn Greenwald- Journalist, Privacy, US imperialism. The Intercept
Also Great
Owen Jones- UK Journalist
Naomi Klein- Journalist, neoliberalism, globalization.
George Monbiot- Journalist, environmentalist.
Amy Goodman- Journalist Democracy Now
Alex Press - Journalist and Founder, Jacobin
Alexander Cockburn - Journalist
Chris Hedges- Journalist.
P Sainath- Journalist, India specialist
Whistleblowing:
Daniel Ellsberg- Vietnam, Released Pentagon Papers.
Edward Snowden
Chelsea Manning
Julian Assange
US History and Foreign Policy
Start off with:
Noam Chomsky - Everything
Howard Zinn- Historian
Laura Poitras - Documentary maker
Also Great
Eqbal Ahmad, - US imperialism
Michelle Alexander, US prison system
William Blum- Former State Dept. Agent, Historian, US imperialism
Jean Bricmont- “The Belgian Chomsky” – US imperialism, geopolitics,
Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz - US History
Thomas Ferguson- US elections specialist.
Ian Haney Lopez- Racism, US politics.
Deepa Kumar- US imperialism, Islamophobia.
Andrew Bacevich - U.S. foreign policy, historian
Economics
Start off with:
Thomas Piketty - inequality
Ha-Joon Chang - institutional economist, specialising in development economics:
Joseph Stiglitz - Former World Bank Chief Economist
Amartya Sen- Third world development and Inequality, Nobel Prize Winner
Yanis Varoufakis
Richard Wolff- Marxism
Dean Baker
Also Great
Michael Albert
John Bellamy Foster
Richard Wilkinson- inequality
William Krehm - Labour
Stephanie Kelton - Modern Monetary Theory
Historians
Start off with:
Thomas Frank - historian, American politics
Howard Zinn- "People's" Historian
Raul Hilberg - The Leading Authority on the Holocaust
Phillip Mirowski - History of economics
Eric Hobsbawm - historian, Marxist
Also Great
Gar Aleprovitz, - world war 2, co-operatives.
Alex Carey - Laid the foundation for Manufacturing Consent
Nancy Maclean - US South, Labor, Race
Mark Curtis
Mike Davis- Globalization, Historian.
Gerald Horne- Historian, black liberation.
Gabriel Kolko- Historian. World War 2.
Morris Berman - historian, American social critic
Israel/Palestine
Start off with:
Norman Finkelstein- Israel specialist.
Avi Shlaim - Israel
Also Great
Amira Hass- Journalist, Israel specialist.
Illan Pappe- Israel specialist
James Petras- Israel and Latin America specialist.
Greg Philo- Media criticism, Israel.
Media Criticism
Start off with:
Edward Herman- Media criticism.
Robert McChesney- media criticism.
Edward Said- sociology, Islamophobia, Israel, media criticism
Also Great
Ben Bagdikian, - media criticism.
Keane Bhatt- Media Criticism, Latin America.
Oliver Boyd-Barrett- Media Criticism
Sut Jhally- sociology, film-maker
James Curran- Media Criticism
Alan MacLeod - Media Criticism, Venezuela
Anarchism/Socialism/Political Theory
Start off with:
David Graeber- historian, anarchism, Occupy Wall Street, anthropology.
Joel Bakan, - writer of “The Corporation”, seminal book on corporations.
Cornel West- sociology
Tariq Ali, “The British Chomsky”- everything from globalization to history to politics.
Murray Bookchin - Anarchism
Also Great
Angela Davis- Feminism, Marxism, black liberation.
Peter Gelderloos - anarchism
Uri Gordon - anarchism, Israel/Palestine
Harry Cleaver - Marxism, economics
Michel Bauwens - P2P, political economy
James C. Scott - anarchism, anthropology
Michael Heinrich - Marxism, political science
Specialists
Stephen Cohen- Russia specialist.
Bruce Cummings- Korea Specialist.
Aviva Chomsky – Immigration, Latin America.
Eduardo Galeano- Poet, Author, Latin American specialist.
Fawaz Gerges - Middle East specialist.
Andrej Grubacic- Yugoslavia specialist.
Flynt and Hillary Leverett- Iran specialists.
William I. Robinson- globalization, neoliberalism, Latin America specialist
Lars Schoultz- Latin America specialist
Sanho Tree- drugs, Colombia specialist
Nick Turse - Africa
Mark Weisbrot- economics, Latin America
Kevin Young- media criticism, Latin America
Raj Patel- Food
Vijay Prashad- globalization, third world development
Thomas Szasz- Criticism of psychiatry
Alfie Kohn- Education.
Daniel Kovalik - Human rights
Paulo Freire- Education.
Henry Giroux- Education
Greg Grandin - Historian, Latin America
Dave Zirin- sports
Gabor Maté- Education, drugs, psychiatry.
Kate Bronfenbrenner - Labour and Unions
Loic Wacquant - sociology, neoliberalism
Bernard Harcourt - surveillance, penal law
Eric Toussaint - political science, debt
The best arguments for major mainstream political positions:
Fascism and Neo-Conservatism
On Dictatorship and The Concept of The Political Carl Schmitt
Note:
Some have argued that neoconservativism has been influenced by Schmitt Most notably the legal opinions offered by Alberto Gonzales, John Yoo et al. by invoking the unitary executive theory to justify highly controversial policies in the war on terror—such as introducing unlawful combatant status which purportedly would eliminate protection by the Geneva Conventions torture, NSA electronic surveillance program—mimic his writings.Professor David Luban said in 2011 that "[a] Lexis search reveals five law review references to Schmitt between 1980 and 1990; 114 between 1990 and 2000; and 420 since 2000, with almost twice as many in the last five years as the previous five"
Realpolitik
World Order, by Henry Kissinger
Liberalism/Social Democracy
A Theory of Justice, by John Rawls
Right-Wing Libertarianism
Anarchy, State, Utopia by Robert Nozick
Technocracy
Zero to One, by Peter Thiel
Marxism-Leninism
Left-Wing Communism, and Infantile Disorder by Vladimir Lenin
Recommended books:
Israel/Palestine and the Middle East:
Start off with:
The Iron Wall by Avi Shlaim
★ Gaza: An Inquest Into Its Martyrdom by Norman Finkelstein
Also Great
★ Fateful Triangle by Noam Chomsky
Israel/Palestine: How to End the War of 1948 by Tanya Reinhart
The Birth of Israel: Myths and Realities by Simha Flapan
Between the Lines: Israel, the Palestinians, and the U.S. War on Terror by Tikva Honig-Parnass
The Holocaust Industry: Norman Finkelstein
Defending the Holy Land: A Critical Analysis of Israel's Security and Foreign Policy by Zeev Maoz
Gaza: An Inquest Into Its Martyrdom by Norman Finkelstein
The New Intifada: Resisting Israel’s Apartheid by Roane Carey, Alison Weir, and others
The Battle for Justice in Palestine by Ali Abunimah
American Foreign Policy:
Start off with:
★ ★ ★ Understanding Power by Noam Chomsky
Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II by William Blum
Also Great:
Defeat: Why America and Britain Lost Iraq by Jonathon Steele
A Different Kind of War: The Un Sanctions Regime in Iraq by Hans. C. Von Sponeck
Al-Qaeda: Casting a Shadow of Terror by Jason Burke
How America Gets Away with Murder: Illegal Wars, Collateral Damage and Crimes Against Humanity by Michael Mandel
The Deaths of Others: The Fate of Civilians in America's Wars by John Turnam
Talking to the Enemy: Faith, Brotherhood, and the (Un)Making of Terrorists by Scott Atran
The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade by Alfred W. McCoy
Ideal Illusions: How the U.S. Government Co-opted Human Rights by James Peck
War Stars: The Superweapon and the American Imagination by Howard Bruce Franklin
Next Time They’ll Come to Count the Dead: War and Survival in South Sudan by Nick Turse
Tomorrow's Battlefield : U.S. Proxy Wars and Secret Ops in Africa by Nick Turse
The Violent American Century: War and Terror Since World War II by John Dower
Command and Control: Nuclear Weapons, the Damascus Accident, and the Illusion of Safety by Eric Schlosser
The Hungry World: America's Cold War Battle Against Poverty in Asia by Nick Cullather
Voices From the Other Side: An Oral History of Terrorism Against Cuba by Keith Bolender
The Doomsday Machine: Confessions of a Nuclear War Planner by Daniel Ellsberg
Tinderbox: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Roots of Terrorism by Stephen Zunes
One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev and Castro on the Brink of Nuclear War by Michael Dobbs
Kill Chain: Drones and The Rise of the High-Tech Assassins by Andrew Cockburn
First Do No Harm: Humanitarian Intervention and the Destruction of Yugoslavia by David Gibbs
The Management of Savagery by Max Blumenthal
Media and Propaganda:
Start off with:
Manufacturing Consent by Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky
Propaganda by Edward Bernays
The Record of the Paper: How the New York Times Misreports US Foreign Policy by Richard A. Falk
Also Great:
The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda by Edward Herman
The Politics of Genocide by Edward Herman
Taking the Risk Out of Democracy: Corporate Propaganda versus Freedom and Liberty by Alex Carey
American History and Culture:
Start off with:
★ A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn
Also Great:
Political Repression in Modern America: FROM 1870 TO 1976 by Robert Justin Goldstein
No is Not Enough: Resisting Trump's Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need by Naomi Klein
The Industrial Worker, 1840-1860: The Reaction of American Industrial Society to the Advance of the Industrial Revolution by Norman Ware
Voices of a People's History of the United States by Anthony Arnove and Howard Zinn
Violent Politics: A History of Insurgency, Terrorism, and Guerrilla War, from the American Revolution to Iraq by William R. Polk
★ With Liberty and Justice for Some: How the Law is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful by Glenn Greenwald
Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right by Arlie Russell Hochschild
The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism by Edward Baptist
The New Jim Crow by Michelle Alexander
Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II by Douglas A. Blackmon
Inferno: The World at War, 1939-1945 by Max Hastings
The Politics of War: Allied Diplomacy and the World Crisis of 1943-1945 by Gabriel Kolko Labor History:
The Fall of the House of Labor by David Montgomery
Selling Free Enterprise: The Business Assault on Labor and Liberalism, 1945-60 by Elizabeth A. Fones-Wolf
The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815-1846 by Charles Grier Sellers
Sociopathic Society: A People’s Sociology of the United States by Charles Derber
On the Rojava Experiment:
Revolution in Rojava
Struggles for Autonomy in Kurdistan
A Small Key Can Open a Large Door
Rojava: An Alternative to Imperialism, Nationalism, and Islamism in the Middle East
Coming Down the Mountains
To Dare Imagining: Rojava Revolution
★ Ocalan’s Prison Writings
Anarchism, Socialism, Philosophy, and Science:
Start off with:
Government In The Future(Talk) by Noam Chomsky
Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell
On Anarchism by Mikhail Bakunin
The Limits of State Action by Wilhelm von Humboldt
Also Great
Progress Without People: In Defense of Luddism by David F. Noble
Granny Made Me an Anarchist: General Franco, The Angry Brigade and Me by Stuart Christie
Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals' Abuse of Science by Alan Sokal
Beyond the Hoax: Science, Philosophy and Culture by Alan Sokal
A Theory of Power by Jeff Vail
Workers' Councils by Anton Pannekoek
The State: Its Origin and Function by William Paul
On Anarchism by Noam Chomsky
The Anarchist Collectives: Workers' Self-Management in the Spanish Revolution 1936-39 by Sam Dolgoff
Anarchism by Daniel Guerin
The Ancestors Tale by Richard Dawkins
Demon Haunted World by Carl Sagan
Memory and the Computational Brain: Why Cognitive Science WIll Transform Neuroscience by Randy Gallistel and Adam Philip King
Vision: A Computational Investigation Into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information by David Marr
Economics:
Start off with:
★ ★ Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism by Ha-Joon Chang
★ Making Globalization Work by Joseph Stiglitz
Capital in the 21st Century by Thomas Piketty
Adam Smith and His Legacy for Modern Capitalism by Patricia H. Werhane
Also Great:
Democracy at Work: A Cure for Capitalism by Richard Wolff
Das Kapital by Karl Marx
Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith
Affluence and Influence: Economic Inequality and Political Power in America by Martin Gilens
America Beyond Capitalism by Gar Alperovitz
The ABCs of Political Economy: A Modern Approach by Robert Hahnel
★ ★ Golden Rule: The Investment Theory of Party Competition and the Logic of Money-Driven Political Systems by Thomas Ferguson
The Conservative Nanny State: How the Wealthy Use the Government to Stay Rich and Get Richer by Dean Baker
Rigged: How Globalization and the Rules of the Modern Economy Were Structured to Make the Rich Richer by Dean Baker
Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age by Larry M. Bartels
Understanding Capitalism: Critical Analysis From Karl Marx to Amartya Sen by Douglas Down
Whose Crisis, Whose Future?: Towards a Greener, Fairer, Richer World by Susan George
Business as Usual: The Economic Crisis and the Failure of Capitalism by Paul Mattock Jr.
Greening the Global Economy by Robert Pollin
Capitalism: A Ghost Story by Arundhati Roy
Political Economy and Laissez Faire by Rajani Kannepalli Kanth
The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time by Karl Polanyi
Miscellaneous:
★ Discipline and Punish, by Michel Foucault
Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs by Johann Hari
Controlling the Dangerous Classes by Randall G. Shelden
Pedagogy of the Opressed by Paulo Freire
The Verso Book of Dissent: From Spartacus to the Shoe-Thrower of Baghdad by Andrew Hsiao
Don't Mourn, Balkanize!: Essays After Yugoslavia by Andrej Grubačić
★ Field Notes on Democracy: Listening to Grasshoppers by Arundhati Roy
Voices from the Plain of Jars: Life under an Air War by Fred Branfman
We by Yevgeny Zamyatin
In Praise of Barbarians by Mike Davis
Damming the Flood by Peter Hallward
Hope and Folly: The United States and UNESCO, 1945-1985 by Edward Herman and Herbert Schiller
Fanshen: A Documentary of Revolution in a Chinese Village by William Hinton
The Egyptians: A Radical Story by Jack Shenker
Welcome to the Revolution: Universalizing Resistance for Social Justice and Democracy in Perilous Times by Charles Derber
Sociopathic Society: A People’s Sociology of the United States by Charles Derber
The Black Jacobins by C.L.R. James
Dark Money by Jane Meyers
King Leopold's Ghost by Adam Hochschild
Recommended YouTubers/Creators/Channels(with a linked video to get you started):
Political
Contrapoints | America: Still Racist
★ Philosophy Tube | The Philosophy of Antifa
Existential Comics
★ ★ Chomsky’s Philosophy | Bakunin's Predictions
HBomber Guy | Soy Boys: A Measured Response
Shaun | How Privatisation Fails: Railways
Badmouse Productions | Argument ad Venezuelum
Three Arrows | Who is actually at fault for the refugee crisis?
Gravesend Films (with Norman Finkelstein) | The Idea Of Utopia
The Intercept | Greenwald and Risen debate Russiagate
Non Political
Lindsay Ellis - Film Criticism | The Ideology of the First Order
The Great War - History | The Run For The Baku Oil Fields
History Civilis - History | The Constitution Of The Spartans
Numberphile - Mathematics | Perplexing Paperclips
Computerphile - Technology | The Bitcoin Power Problem
Vihart - Mathematics | Hexaflexagons
3Blue1Brown - Mathematics | How Cryptocurrencies Work
PBS SpaceTime - Astronomy, Physics | The Blackhole Information Paradox
Will Schoder - Video Essays | The Problem with Irony and Postmodernism
Assorted Documentaries to get you started:
Manufacturing Consent - The seminal work on how the population is controlled in democratic societies
★ ★ Citizenfour - Edward Snowden, Glenn Greenwald and Laura Poitras in a Hong Kong Room.
★ ★ Risk - A deep look at Wikileaks - from the inside the embassy.
The Murder of Fred Hampton - How the FBI brazenly assassinated an American citizen without any warrant or due process
Weiner - An incredible look at how political campaigns function from the inside.
The Corporation - What are corporations?
The Shock Doctrine - Lectures by Naomi Klein, news-reel footage and analysis to explain the connection between politics and economics.
Hypernormalization - Explains not only why chaotic events happen - but also why we, and politicians, cannot understand them.
Inside Job - A look at the cause for the financial crisis
Podcasts
Start off with:
★ ★ ★ Citations Needed
Also Great:
Intercepted
Current Affairs Podcast
Chapo Trap House
Moderate Rebels
Economic Update
Protect Yourself:
PrivacyToolsIO,
Electronic Frontier Foundation
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List of moderately difficult skribbl words for your new friend group (1200+ words)

That is to say that this list contains words that this list contains words that:
  1. Usually aren't instantly guess-able (like star, apple, or Nike).
  2. Can be played with a group of acquaintances (I play with a group of interns at work to blow off time)
Created this list by modifying an existing difficult word list we found online and adding a bunch of new words. If you see a stupid difficult word, it was probably a word from the existing difficult word list that I forgot to remove. (amicable and reimbursement were the type of bs I removed lol).
abraham lincoln, accordion, accounting, acre, actor, adidas, advertisement, air conditioner, aircraft carrier, airport security, alarm clock, alcohol, alert, alice in wonderland, alphabet, altitude, amusement park, angel, angle, angry, ankle, apathetic, apathy, apparatus, applause, application, apron, archaeologist, archer, armada, arrows, art gallery, ashamed, asteroid, athlete, atlantis, atlas, atmosphere, attack, attic, audi, aunt, austin powers, australia, author, avalanche, avocado, award, baby, baby-sitter, back flip, back seat, baggage, baguette, baker, balance beam, bald, balloon, bamboo, banister, barbershop, barney, baseboards, bat, beans, beanstalk, beard, bed and breakfast, bedbug, beer pong, belt, beluga whale, berlin wall, bible, biceps, bikini, binder, biohazard, biology, birthday, biscuit, bisexual, bitcoin, black hole, blacksmith, bleach, blizzard, blueprint, bluetooth, blunt, blush, boa constrictor, bobsled, bonnet, book, bookend, bookstore, border, boromir, bottle cap, boulevard, boundary, bow tie, bowling, boxing, braces, brain, brainstorm, brand, bride, bride wig, bruise, brunette, bubble, bubble bath, bucket, buckle, buffalo, bugs bunny, bulldog, bumble bee, bunny, burrito, bus, bushel, butterfly, buzz lightyear, cabin, cable car, cadaver, cake, calculator, calendar, calf, calm, camera, cannon, cape, captain, captain america, car, car accident, carat, cardboard, carnival, carpenter, carpet, cartography, cartoon, cartoonist, castaway, castle, cat, catalog, cattle, cd, ceiling, cell, cellar, centimetre, centipede, century, chain mail, chain saw, chair, champion, chandelier, channel, chaos, charger, chariot, chariot racing, check, cheerleader, cheerleader dust, chef, chemical, cherub, chess, chevrolet, chick-fil-a, chicken coop, chicken legs, chicken nugget, chime, chimney, china, chisel, chord, church, circus tent, clamp, classroom, cleaning spray, cliff, cliff diving, climate, clique, cloak, clog, clown, clue, coach, coast, cockpit, coconut, coffee, coil, comedian, comfy, commercial, community, companion, company, compare, comparison, compromise, computer, computer monitor, con, confidant, confide, consent, constrictor, convenience store, conversation, convertible, conveyor belt, copyright, cord, corduroy, coronavirus, correct, cot, country, county fair, courthouse, cousin, cowboy, coworker, cramp, crane, cranium, crate, crayon, cream, creator, credit, crew, crib, crime, crisp, criticize, crop duster, crow's nest, cruise, cruise ship, crumbs, crust, cubicle, cubit, cupcake, curtain, cushion, customer, cutlass, czar, dab, daffy duck, dance, danger, darth vader, darts, dashboard, daughter, dead end, deadpool, deceive, decipher, deep, default, defect, degree, deliver, demanding, demon, dent, dentist, deodorant, depth, descendant, destruction, detail, detective, diagonal, dice, dictate, disco, disc jockey, discovery, disgust, dismantle, distraction, ditch, diver, diversify, diversity, diving, divorce, dizzy, dodge ball, dog, 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The Intellectual Foundation of Bitcoin比特幣的智識基礎. By Chapman Chen, HKBNews

The Intellectual Foundation of Bitcoin比特幣的智識基礎. By Chapman Chen, HKBNews

https://preview.redd.it/w6v3l8n3zxu41.jpg?width=2551&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fb0338a36a1a321d3781f43ff5eb6929d8b92edc
Summary: Bitcoin was invented by the anonymous Satoshi Nakamoto as recently as 2008, but it is backed up by a rich intellectual foundation. For instance, The 1776 First Amendment separates church and state, and contemporary American liberation psychologist Nozomi Hayase (2020) argues that money and state should similarly be separated. Just as Isaac Newton’s study of alchemy gave rise to the international gold standard, so has the anonymous creator Satoshi Nakamoto's desire for a “modernized gold standard” given rise to Bitcoin. Indeed, Bloomberg's 2020 report confirms Bitcoin to be gold 2.0. Montesquieu (1774) asserted that laws that secure inalienable rights can only be found in Nature, and the natural laws employed in Bitcoin include its consensus algorithm and the three natural laws of economics (self-interest, competition, and supply and demand). J.S. Mill (1859) preferred free markets to those controlled by governments. Ludwig von Mises (1951) argued against the hazards of fiat currency, urging for a return to the gold standard. Friedrich Hayek (1984) suggested people to invent a sly way to take money back from the hands of the government. Milton Friedman (1994) called for FED to be replaced by an automatic system and predicted the coming of a reliable e-cash. James Buchanan (1988) advocated a monetary constitution to constrain the governmental power of money creation. Tim May (1997) the cypherpunk proclaimed that restricting digital cash impinges on free speech, and envisioned a stateless digital form of money that is uncensorable. The Tofflers (2006) pictured a non-monetary economy. In 2016, UCLA Professor of Finance Bhagwan Chowdhry even nominated Satoshi for a Nobel Prize.
Full Text:
Separation between money and state
The 1791 First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution enshrines free speech and separates church and state, but not money and state. "Under the First Amendment, individuals’ right to create, choose their own money and transact freely was not recognized as a part of freedom of expression that needs to be protected," Japanese-American liberation psychologist Nozomi Hayase (2020) points out (1).
The government, banks and corporations collude together to encroach upon people's liberties by metamorphosing their inalienable rights into a permissioned from of legal rights. Fiat currencies function as a medium of manipulation, indulging big business to generate market monopolies. "Freedom of expression has become further stifled through economic censorship and financial blockage enacted by payment processing companies like Visa and MasterCard," to borrow Hayase's (2020) words.
Satoshi is a Modern Newton
Although most famous for discovering the law of gravity, Isaac Newton was also a practising alchemist. He never managed to turn lead into gold, but he did find a way to transmute silver into gold. In 1717, Newton announced in a report that, based on his studies, one gold guinea coin weighed 21 shillings. Just as Isaac Newton’s study of alchemy gave rise to the international gold standard, so has the desire for a “modernized gold standard” given rise to Bitcoin. "In a way, Satoshi is a modern Newton. They both believed trust is best placed in the unchangeable facets of our economy. Beneath this belief is the assumption that each individual is their own best master," as put by Jon Creasy (2019) (2).
J.S. Mill: free markets preferable to those controlled by governments
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) the great English philosopher would be a Bitcoiner were he still around today. In On Liberty (1859), Mill concludes that free markets are preferable to those controlled by governments. He argues that economies function best when left to their own devices. Therefore, government intervention, though theoretically permissible, would be counterproductive. Bitcoin is precisely decentralized or uncontrolled by the government, unconfiscatable, permissonless, and disinflationary. Bitcoin regulates itself spontaneously via the ordinary operations of the system. "Rules are enforced without applying any external pressure," in Hayase's (2020) words.
Ludwig von Mises (1958): Liberty is always Freedom from the Government
In The Free Market and its Enemies, theoretical Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises (1951) argues against the hazards of fiat currency, urging for a return to the gold standard. “A fiat money system cannot go on forever and must one day come to an end,” Von Mises states. The solution is a return to the gold standard, "the only standard which makes the determination of the purchasing power of money independent of the changing ideas of political parties, governments, and pressure groups" under present conditions. Interestingly, this is also one of the key structural attributes of Bitcoin, the world’s first, global, peer-to-peer, decentralized value transfer network.
Actually, Bloomberg's 2020 report on Bitcoin confirms that it is gold 2.0. (3)
Von Mises prefers the price of gold to be determined according to the contemporaneous market conditions. The bitcoin price is, of course, determined across the various global online exchanges, in real-time. There is no central authority setting a spot price for gold after the which the market value is settled on among the traders during the day.
Hayek: Monopoly on Currency should End
Austrian-British Nobel laureate Friedrich Hayek’s theory in his 1976 work, Denationalization of Money, was that not only would the currency monopoly be taken away from the government, but that the monopoly on currency itself should end with multiple alternative currencies competing for acceptance by consumers, in order "to prevent the bouts of acute inflation and deflation which have played the world for the past 60 years." He forcefully argues that if there is no free competition between different currencies within any nation, then there will be no free market. Bitcoin is, again, decentralized, and many other cryptocurrencies have tried to compete with it, though in vain.
In a recently rediscovered video clip from 1984, Hayek actually suggested people to invent a cunning way to take money out of the hands of the government:- “I don’t believe we shall ever have a good money again before we take the thing out of the hands of government, that is, we can’t take them violently out of the hands of government, all we can do is by some sly roundabout way introduce something they can’t stop” (4). Reviewing those words 36 years hence and it is difficult not to interpret them in the light of Bitcoin.
Milton Friedman Called for FED to be Replaced by an Automatic System
Nobel laureate economist Milton Friedman (1994) was critical of the Federal Reserve due to its poor performance and felt it should be abolished (5). Friedman (1999) believed that the Federal Reserve System should ultimately be replaced with a computer program, which makes us think of the computer code governing Bitcoin (6).[\](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_the_Federal_Reserve#cite_note-:2-12) He (1970) favored a system that would automatically buy and sell securities in response to changes in the money supply. This, he argued, would put a lid on inflation, setting spending and investment decisions on a surer footing (7). Bitcoin is exactly disflationary as its maximum possible supply is 21 million and its block reward or production rate is halved every four years.
Friedman passed away before the coming of bitcoin, but he lived long enough to see the Internet’s spectacular rise throughout the 1990s. “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government," said Friedman in a 1999 interview with NTU/F. On the same occasion, he sort of predicted the emergence of Bitcoin, "The one thing that’s missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash, a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B, without A knowing B or B knowing A." (8)
Of course, Friedman didnt predict the block chain, summed up American libertarian economist Jeffery Tucker (2014). “But he was hoping for a trustless system. He saw the need. (9).
Bitcoin Computer Code as Constitution in the Buchananian Sense
American economist cum Nobel laureate James Buchanan (1988) advocates constitutional constraints on the governmental power to create money (10). Buchanan distinguishes a managed monetary system—a system “that embodies the instrumental use of price-level predictability as a norm of policy”—from an automatic monetary system, “which does not, at any stage, involve the absolute price level” (Buchanan 1962, 164–65). Leaning toward the latter, Buchanan argues that automatic systems are characterized by an organization “of the institutions of private decision-making in such a way that the desired monetary predictability will emerge spontaneously from the ordinary operations of the system” (Buchanan 1962, 164). Again, "Bitcoin regulates itself through the spontaneous force of nature, flourishing healthy price discovery and competition in the best interest of everyone" (Hayase 2020).
Shruti Rajagopalan (2018) argues that the computer code governing how the sundry nodes/computers within the Bitcoin network interact with one another is a kind of monetary constitution in the Buchananian sense. One of Buchanan's greatest inputs is to differentiate the choice of rules from the choice within rule (Buchanan 1990). One may regard the Bitcoin code as a sort of constitution and "the Bitcoin network engaging in both the choice of rules and choice within rules" (Rajagopalan 2018) (11).
Tim May: Restricting Digital Cash may Impinge on Free Speech
Cypherpunks are activists who since the 1980s have advocated global use of strong cryptography and privacy-enhancing technologies as a route to social and political liberation. Tim May (Timothy C. May [1951-2018]), one of the influential cypherpunks published The Crypto Anarchist Manifesto in September 1992, which foretold the coming of Bitcoin (12). Cypherpunks began envisioning a stateless digital form of money that cannot be censored and their collaborative pursuit created a movement akin to the 18th Enlightenment.
At The 7th Conference on Computers, Freedom, and Privacy, Burlingame, CA. in 1997, Tim May equated money with speech, and argued that restricting digital cash may impinge on free speech, for spending money is often a matter of communicating orders to others, to transfer funds, to release funds, etc. In fact, most financial instruments are contracts or orders, instead of physical specie or banknotes (13).
Montesquieu: Laws that secure inalienable rights can only be found in Nature
In his influential work The Spirit of Laws (1748), Montesquieu wrote, “Laws ... are derived from the nature of things … Law, like mathematics, has its objective structure, which no arbitrary whim can alter". Similarly, once a block is added to the end of the Bitcoin blockchain, it is almost impossible to go back and alter the contents of the block, unless every single block after it on the blockchain is altered, too.
Cypherpunks knew that whereas alienable rights that are bestowed by law can be deprived by legislation, inalienable rights are not to be created but can be discovered by reason. Thus, laws that secure inalienable rights cannot be created by humankind but can be found in nature.
The natural laws employed in Bitcoin to enshrine the inalienable monetary right of every human being include its consensus algorithm, and the three natural laws of economics (self-interest, competition, and supply and demand) as identified by Adam Smith, father of modern economics.
Regarding mathematics, bitcoin mining is performed by high-powered computers that solve complex computational math problems. When computers solve these complex math problems on the Bitcoin network, they produce new bitcoin. And by solving computational math problems, bitcoin miners make the Bitcoin payment network trustworthy and secure, by verifying its transaction information.
Regarding economic laws, in accordance with the principle of game theory to generate fairness, miners take part in an open competition. Lining up self-interests of all in a network, with a vigilant balance of risk and rewards, rules are put in force sans the application of any exterior pressure. "Bitcoin regulates itself through the spontaneous force of nature, flourishing healthy price discovery and competition in the best interest of everyone," to borrow the words of Hayase (2020).
A Non-monetary Economy as Visualized by the Tofflers
In their book, Revolutionary Wealth (2006), futurists Alvin Toffler and his wife Heidi Toffler toy with the concept of a world sans money, raising a third kind of economic transaction that is neither one-on-one barter nor monetary exchange. In the end, they settle on the idea that the newer non-monetary economy will exist shoulder-to-shoulder with the monetary sector in the short term, although the latter may eventually be eclipsed by the former in the long run. What both the Tofflers' The Third Wave (1980) and Revolutionary Wealth bring into question is the very premise of monetary exchange. The vacuum left over by cash in such a non-monetary economy may be filled up by Bitcoin as a cryptocurrency.
Satoshi Nakamoto Nominated for Nobel Prize by UCLA Finance Prof.
UCLA Anderson School Professor of Finance Bhagwan Chowdhry nominated Satoshi Nakamoto for the 2016 Nobel Prize in Economics on the following grounds:-
It is secure, relying on almost unbreakable cryptographic code, can be divided into millions of smaller sub-units, and can be transferred securely and nearly instantaneously from one person to any other person in the world with access to internet bypassing governments, central banks and financial intermediaries such as Visa, Mastercard, Paypal or commercial banks eliminating time delays and transactions costs.... Satoshi Nakamoto’s Bitcoin Protocol has spawned exciting innovations in the FinTech space by showing how many financial contracts — not just currencies — can be digitized, securely verified and stored, and transferred instantaneously from one party to another (14).
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Web link: https://www.hkbnews.net/post/the-intellectual-foundation-of-bitcoin%E6%AF%94%E7%89%B9%E5%B9%A3%E7%9A%84%E6%99%BA%E8%AD%98%E5%9F%BA%E7%A4%8E-by-chapman-chen-hkbnews
Disclaimer: This article is neither an advertisement nor professional financial advice.
End-notes
  1. https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/bitcoin-is-the-technology-of-dissent-that-secures-individual-liberties
  2. https://medium.com/hackernoon/why-sir-isaac-newton-was-the-first-bitcoin-maximalist-195a17cb6c34
  3. https://data.bloomberglp.com/professional/sites/10/Bloomberg-Crypto-Outlook-April-2020.pdf
  4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EYhEDxFwFRU&t=1161s
  5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6fkdagNrjI
  6. http://youtu.be/mlwxdyLnMXM
  7. https://miltonfriedman.hoover.org/friedman_images/Collections/2016c21/IEA_1970.pdf
  8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6MnQJFEVY7s
  9. https://www.coindesk.com/economist-milton-friedman-predicted-bitcoin
  10. https://www.aier.org/research/prospects-for-a-monetary-constitution/
  11. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3238472
  12. https://www.activism.net/cypherpunk/crypto-anarchy.html
  13. http://osaka.law.miami.edu/~froomkin/articles/tcmay.htm
  14. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/i-shall-happily-accept-th_b_8462028
Pic credit: Framingbitcoin
#bitcoin #bitcoinhalving #jamesBuchanan #MiltonFriedman #AlvinToffler #FirstAmendment #LudwigVonMises #TimMay #freeMarket # SatoshiNakamoto #FriedrichHayek #Cypherpunk #Cryptocurrency #GoldStandard #IsaacNewton
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Cost basis/income tax calculations for BAT earned from ads

So, seeing posts like this one around here is making me concerned. If I simply have Brave Rewards enabled in my browser, and nothing more - I'm not registered as a creatopublisher, I'm not verified with Uphold, I haven't in any way cashed out my tokens - what in the heck do and don't I have to report on my 1040 to avoid getting stuck in a perjury trap?
Every website and Reddit commentor seems to have a different answer on this. Some of the answers are more clearly in line with IRS guidance than others but in many cases there is no clear sense to be had of which is "more reasonable" than the others. Yet since I've had Brave Rewards enabled since mid-2019, it behooves me to "get this right" when I fill out my 2019 tax return, lest the IRS come down on me for being inconsistent with my answers should I have better answers to these questions in future years.
The IRS is clear on one thing: cryptocurrency, in general, is valuable property and treated much like gold or other non-dollar capital assets (whether or not they're intended or used primarily as "money"). If your employer pays you in bitcoin (or gold, or a car, or a cow, etc.), you owe taxes on that income the day you receive it, whether or not you "cashed it out" by selling it for dollars. The IRS expects you to compute a "cost basis" for the property you received by determining its current "fair market value" in dollars, and that's what you report on your tax return. If and when you sell that property for dollars at any later date, that's a separate transaction, which may or may not incur a capital gain or loss (difference in value you received from the sale vs. what it was worth when you originally got the property), and that is reported in its own line on the 1040 (separate from ordinary income, depending on whether you held the property more or less than 1 year before selling it).
So far, so good - that's all straightforward enough and well-precedented since it's the same thing people are used to doing for other capital goods such as stocks/bonds, precious metals, or real estate. It's even straightforward for people who simply trade crypto as an investment, like Bitcoin or whatever. In that case it's no different (tax-wise) from trading gold, and if you do it through a broker like Coinbase, Uphold, etc. you'll probably get a nice statement at the end of the year that breaks it all down and you can import into TurboTax or whatever.
That's still well and good for those who (like many here) are trading BAT as an investment, like any other crypto.
But Brave Rewards's BAT microtransactions are a whole 'nother level of craziness. If we're just using BAT within the Brave ecosystem - receiving it from ads and tipping/auto-contributing it back to publishers - does it ever enter the world of "capital assets" from my perspective as a user? If so, how the heck do I compute my cost basis? How on earth do I know how my BAT balance breaks down in terms of amounts received on particular days, which I absolutely need to know if I'm going to look up BAT/USD exchange rates online to compute cost basis information? Brave currently doesn't provide any sort of "wallet statement" showing transactions in or out of the browser on a date-stamped basis. I know that's planned for "the future", but that doesn't exactly help me for doing my 2019 taxes.
I realize that Brave cannot give "tax advise" per se, ad nauseum. But surely Brave has done some thinking about the tax implications of BAT/Brave Rewards for ordinary users, versus just saying "have fun explaining this to the IRS" - right? We know that Brave can and does make legal statements about what they believe, as a company based on the advice of their corporate counsel, the legal status of BAT is (see e.g. this answer in the official FAQ).
That, of course, doesn't guarantee that the government will see it that way (or that a judge will), but it's at least helpful to know "some professional lawyers spent a lot of time studying this and think the law says X", because that's a heck of a lot more than us randos on the Internet can guess at. At least if we have some consistent guidance, we can know what our story should be to the IRS and keep it straight, because otherwise we're at the mercy of whatever some auditor or administrative law judge might feel like. Maybe they won't go after most small-fry Brave users today, but you can bet they'll demand answers going back years into the past if one of those users were to become rich, or politically active, or otherwise interesting to the IRS at some point in the future. Taxes, after all, are the one area of the law where citizens are for practical purposes considered guilty (or at least, "liable to pay whatever the IRS demands") until proven innocent. (Sad, but too true.)
My case is the simplest possible one for a Brave Rewards user: I'm a resident U.S. citizen who's never "cashed out" my BAT, I'm not a "publisher" or "creator", I haven't received tips, and I'm not verified with Uphold (couldn't if I wanted to, since they're not licensed in my state). I've only ever made four small tips totaling 40.0 BAT with the initial grant I got from the User Growth Pool when installing Brave (because it was going to expire); I've been hanging onto my non-UGP earnings in the hopes that some of my favorite websites/creators will eventually become verified and I can start spreading the wealth around in a more meaningful way than just dumping it on the 1 or 2 sites I visit that are yet verified.
My questions are thus:
1) Is the BAT I receive from Brave Rewards considered to be a capital asset if I'm not holding it as an investment but just leaving it in the browser to be used as intended there (as a way of funneling ad proceeds from advertisers to publishers)? Does it matter if it stays in the browser and never gets withdrawn to an Uphold account? (e.g. does it then just qualify as "internal functionality of the web browser" and not a meaningful valuable thing I can put a dollar amount on, like a McDonalds Monopoly token with a "cash value" of $0.0001?)
2) If my BAT is considered a capital asset, how do I compute my cost basis for income (and future capital gains/losses) purposes? Is every single microtransaction an "income" transaction with its own separate cost basis that I have to track day-by-day? Or is income only realized when Brave deposits my earnings to my browser on the 5th of the month? Or does it only count if/when I connect an Uphold account and "cash out"?
3) Do I have to answer "Yes" to the new 1040 question asking "did you receive, sell, send, exchange, or otherwise acquire any financial interest in any virtual currency"? (I haven't touched any cryptocurrency in my life besides what I've gotten from Brave Rewards.) Is BAT a "virtual currency" when used strictly within the context of Brave Rewards, or is it something more along the lines of spendable XP points in a video game which have no value (for me, at least) outside that system?
4) If I have to do detailed cost basis reporting, is there any way I can get my Brave browser to cough up some sort of datestamped transaction history for my Rewards? I realize there's no official UI yet, but is there an internal database or something I can dump? (I'm a professional software developer so I'm willing to "get my hands dirty". Heck, I'd be willing to fire up a debugger on a core dump of the browser if that'll help...better that than being liable for tax fraud...)
5) If all else fails, can I escape this blooming mess by just turning off Brave Rewards, forgetting my wallet key (which I've never backed up), bit bucketing the BAT I've so patiently earned over the last year, and never looking back? Is it too late to do so since I've already received the BAT in tax year 2019 (regardless of what I might do with it in 2020, including thus throwing it away)? I realize that in practice I could probably do so and get away with it, but I want to be right with the law here. After all, even if I report nothing on my 2019 tax return regarding crypto, the IRS could always find my posts here on Reddit and say "see, we have proof that you used Brave Rewards in 2019"... Even if I'm a "small fry" at this point in my life that the IRS won't care to go after, I don't want to have a sword of Damocles hanging over my head for them to trigger if and when they feel like it later in life.
Help me my dudes, you're my only hope! ;-) (And I suspect many, many others are quietly freaking out about this too...)
submitted by gemmy0I to BATProject [link] [comments]

Just keep your eyes on the ball, the problem is easy money that can be created out of nothing. So it's being created abundantly, all 'growth' was realized by going into debt. BITCOIN fixes this.

It's hard to understand but you have to dive into the fiat scam. It's debt created out of nothing but just a few are allowed to do this. They can create if for free and charge interest to others using it, what a lovely system of you own it.
By creating lots of it we thought we were doing well. That we gained wealth. But most of it is artificial, even our homes that are now way overpriced won't provide wealth because price will collapse. Just look what the creators of fiat, remember they create it out of air, have on their balance sheets as collateral, it's not funny money but hard collateral, properties and real estate. They don't care if real estate goes down for some 10 years or more, they got it for free, and time is on their side. But we who borrowed the money for our houses have to pay it all back and the interest, doesn't matter to the bank if prices halve or worse.
Promised pensions won't be paid, well perhaps you get the promised amount but look at the purchasing power of it in a few, 10 and 50 years from now.....
Only sound money can fix this. Sound money that is not controlled by a way bigger paper market that sets the price.
Bitcoin fixes all of this. It still has to prove a lot and gain confidence of a big group of people. But it will be hard to stop this. Even if most have a hard time seeing the good thing Bitcoin is, they are now quite bluntly forced to see how bad the current system is.
submitted by Btcyoda to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How to dive deep into political theory and philosophy: The Big List

This is a list of (largely) contemporary thinkers, books and video content aimed as a reference for questions like -
"What should I read next?", "Who should I follow?" or "What are the best resources for [certain political topic]?"
The core list comes from Chomsky, and the books and people he's cited or praised. But the list has significantly expanded since then. Feel free to comment about any good books or channels you think should be on this list.
Chomsky discord server:
https://discord.gg/ynn9rHE
Journalists
Start off with:
Adam H Johnson - Propaganda Model, Media Critique at FAIR
Nathan J Robinson - Journalist, Current Affairs
Glenn Greenwald- Journalist, Privacy, US imperialism. The Intercept
Also Great
Owen Jones- UK Journalist
Naomi Klein- Journalist, neoliberalism, globalization.
George Monbiot- Journalist, environmentalist.
Amy Goodman- Journalist Democracy Now
Alex Press - Journalist and Founder, Jacobin
Alexander Cockburn - Journalist
Chris Hedges- Journalist.
P Sainath- Journalist, India specialist
Whistleblowing:
Daniel Ellsberg- Vietnam, Released Pentagon Papers.
Edward Snowden
Chelsea Manning
Julian Assange
US History and Foreign Policy
Start off with:
Noam Chomsky - Everything
Howard Zinn- Historian
Laura Poitras - Documentary maker
Also Great
Eqbal Ahmad, - US imperialism
Michelle Alexander, US prison system
William Blum- Former State Dept. Agent, Historian, US imperialism
Jean Bricmont- “The Belgian Chomsky” – US imperialism, geopolitics,
Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz - US History
Thomas Ferguson- US elections specialist.
Ian Haney Lopez- Racism, US politics.
Deepa Kumar- US imperialism, Islamophobia.
Andrew Bacevich - U.S. foreign policy, historian
Economics
Start off with:
Thomas Piketty - inequality
Ha-Joon Chang - institutional economist, specialising in development economics:
Joseph Stiglitz - Former World Bank Chief Economist
Amartya Sen- Third world development and Inequality, Nobel Prize Winner
Yanis Varoufakis
Richard Wolff- Marxism
Dean Baker
Also Great
Michael Albert
John Bellamy Foster
Richard Wilkinson- inequality
William Krehm - Labour
Stephanie Kelton - Modern Monetary Theory
Historians
Start off with:
Thomas Frank - historian, American politics
Howard Zinn- "People's" Historian
Raul Hilberg - The Leading Authority on the Holocaust
Phillip Mirowski - History of economics
Eric Hobsbawm - historian, Marxist
Also Great
Gar Aleprovitz, - world war 2, co-operatives.
Alex Carey - Laid the foundation for Manufacturing Consent
Nancy Maclean - US South, Labor, Race
Mark Curtis
Mike Davis- Globalization, Historian.
Gerald Horne- Historian, black liberation.
Gabriel Kolko- Historian. World War 2.
Morris Berman - historian, American social critic
Israel/Palestine
Start off with:
Norman Finkelstein- Israel specialist.
Avi Shlaim - Israel
Also Great
Amira Hass- Journalist, Israel specialist.
Illan Pappe- Israel specialist
James Petras- Israel and Latin America specialist.
Greg Philo- Media criticism, Israel.
Media Criticism
Start off with:
Edward Herman- Media criticism.
Robert McChesney- media criticism.
Edward Said- sociology, Islamophobia, Israel, media criticism
Also Great
Ben Bagdikian, - media criticism.
Keane Bhatt- Media Criticism, Latin America.
Oliver Boyd-Barrett- Media Criticism
Sut Jhally- sociology, film-maker
James Curran- Media Criticism
Alan MacLeod - Media Criticism, Venezuela
Anarchism/Socialism/Political Theory
Start off with:
David Graeber- historian, anarchism, Occupy Wall Street, anthropology.
Joel Bakan, - writer of “The Corporation”, seminal book on corporations.
Cornel West- sociology
Tariq Ali, “The British Chomsky”- everything from globalization to history to politics.
Murray Bookchin - Anarchism
Also Great
Angela Davis- Feminism, Marxism, black liberation.
Peter Gelderloos - anarchism
Uri Gordon - anarchism, Israel/Palestine
Harry Cleaver - Marxism, economics
Michel Bauwens - P2P, political economy
James C. Scott - anarchism, anthropology
Michael Heinrich - Marxism, political science
Specialists
Stephen Cohen- Russia specialist.
Bruce Cummings- Korea Specialist.
Aviva Chomsky – Immigration, Latin America.
Eduardo Galeano- Poet, Author, Latin American specialist.
Fawaz Gerges - Middle East specialist.
Andrej Grubacic- Yugoslavia specialist.
Flynt and Hillary Leverett- Iran specialists.
William I. Robinson- globalization, neoliberalism, Latin America specialist
Lars Schoultz- Latin America specialist
Sanho Tree- drugs, Colombia specialist
Nick Turse - Africa
Mark Weisbrot- economics, Latin America
Kevin Young- media criticism, Latin America
Raj Patel- Food
Vijay Prashad- globalization, third world development
Thomas Szasz- Criticism of psychiatry
Alfie Kohn- Education.
Daniel Kovalik - Human rights
Paulo Freire- Education.
Henry Giroux- Education
Greg Grandin - Historian, Latin America
Dave Zirin- sports
Gabor Maté- Education, drugs, psychiatry.
Kate Bronfenbrenner - Labour and Unions
Loic Wacquant - sociology, neoliberalism
Bernard Harcourt - surveillance, penal law
Eric Toussaint - political science, debt
The best arguments for major mainstream political positions:
Fascism and Neo-Conservatism
On Dictatorship and The Concept of The Political Carl Schmitt
Note:
Some have argued that neoconservativism has been influenced by Schmitt Most notably the legal opinions offered by Alberto Gonzales, John Yoo et al. by invoking the unitary executive theory to justify highly controversial policies in the war on terror—such as introducing unlawful combatant status which purportedly would eliminate protection by the Geneva Conventions torture, NSA electronic surveillance program—mimic his writings.Professor David Luban said in 2011 that "[a] Lexis search reveals five law review references to Schmitt between 1980 and 1990; 114 between 1990 and 2000; and 420 since 2000, with almost twice as many in the last five years as the previous five"
Realpolitik
World Order, by Henry Kissinger
Liberalism/Social Democracy
A Theory of Justice, by John Rawls
Right-Wing Libertarianism
Anarchy, State, Utopia by Robert Nozick
Technocracy
Zero to One, by Peter Thiel
Marxism-Leninism
Left-Wing Communism, and Infantile Disorder by Vladimir Lenin
Recommended books:
Israel/Palestine and the Middle East:
Start off with:
The Iron Wall by Avi Shlaim
★ Gaza: An Inquest Into Its Martyrdom by Norman Finkelstein
Also Great
★ Fateful Triangle by Noam Chomsky
Israel/Palestine: How to End the War of 1948 by Tanya Reinhart
The Birth of Israel: Myths and Realities by Simha Flapan
Between the Lines: Israel, the Palestinians, and the U.S. War on Terror by Tikva Honig-Parnass
The Holocaust Industry: Norman Finkelstein
Defending the Holy Land: A Critical Analysis of Israel's Security and Foreign Policy by Zeev Maoz
Gaza: An Inquest Into Its Martyrdom by Norman Finkelstein
The New Intifada: Resisting Israel’s Apartheid by Roane Carey, Alison Weir, and others
The Battle for Justice in Palestine by Ali Abunimah
American Foreign Policy:
Start off with:
★ ★ ★ Understanding Power by Noam Chomsky
Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II by William Blum
Also Great:
Defeat: Why America and Britain Lost Iraq by Jonathon Steele
A Different Kind of War: The Un Sanctions Regime in Iraq by Hans. C. Von Sponeck
Al-Qaeda: Casting a Shadow of Terror by Jason Burke
How America Gets Away with Murder: Illegal Wars, Collateral Damage and Crimes Against Humanity by Michael Mandel
The Deaths of Others: The Fate of Civilians in America's Wars by John Turnam
Talking to the Enemy: Faith, Brotherhood, and the (Un)Making of Terrorists by Scott Atran
The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade by Alfred W. McCoy
Ideal Illusions: How the U.S. Government Co-opted Human Rights by James Peck
War Stars: The Superweapon and the American Imagination by Howard Bruce Franklin
Next Time They’ll Come to Count the Dead: War and Survival in South Sudan by Nick Turse
Tomorrow's Battlefield : U.S. Proxy Wars and Secret Ops in Africa by Nick Turse
The Violent American Century: War and Terror Since World War II by John Dower
Command and Control: Nuclear Weapons, the Damascus Accident, and the Illusion of Safety by Eric Schlosser
The Hungry World: America's Cold War Battle Against Poverty in Asia by Nick Cullather
Voices From the Other Side: An Oral History of Terrorism Against Cuba by Keith Bolender
The Doomsday Machine: Confessions of a Nuclear War Planner by Daniel Ellsberg
Tinderbox: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Roots of Terrorism by Stephen Zunes
One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev and Castro on the Brink of Nuclear War by Michael Dobbs
Kill Chain: Drones and The Rise of the High-Tech Assassins by Andrew Cockburn
First Do No Harm: Humanitarian Intervention and the Destruction of Yugoslavia by David Gibbs
The Management of Savagery by Max Blumenthal
Media and Propaganda:
Start off with:
Manufacturing Consent by Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky
Propaganda by Edward Bernays
The Record of the Paper: How the New York Times Misreports US Foreign Policy by Richard A. Falk
Also Great:
The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda by Edward Herman
The Politics of Genocide by Edward Herman
Taking the Risk Out of Democracy: Corporate Propaganda versus Freedom and Liberty by Alex Carey
American History and Culture:
Start off with:
★ A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn
Also Great:
Political Repression in Modern America: FROM 1870 TO 1976 by Robert Justin Goldstein
No is Not Enough: Resisting Trump's Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need by Naomi Klein
The Industrial Worker, 1840-1860: The Reaction of American Industrial Society to the Advance of the Industrial Revolution by Norman Ware
Voices of a People's History of the United States by Anthony Arnove and Howard Zinn
Violent Politics: A History of Insurgency, Terrorism, and Guerrilla War, from the American Revolution to Iraq by William R. Polk
★ With Liberty and Justice for Some: How the Law is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful by Glenn Greenwald
Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right by Arlie Russell Hochschild
The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism by Edward Baptist
The New Jim Crow by Michelle Alexander
Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II by Douglas A. Blackmon
Inferno: The World at War, 1939-1945 by Max Hastings
The Politics of War: Allied Diplomacy and the World Crisis of 1943-1945 by Gabriel Kolko Labor History:
The Fall of the House of Labor by David Montgomery
Selling Free Enterprise: The Business Assault on Labor and Liberalism, 1945-60 by Elizabeth A. Fones-Wolf
The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815-1846 by Charles Grier Sellers
Sociopathic Society: A People’s Sociology of the United States by Charles Derber
On the Rojava Experiment:
Revolution in Rojava
Struggles for Autonomy in Kurdistan
A Small Key Can Open a Large Door
Rojava: An Alternative to Imperialism, Nationalism, and Islamism in the Middle East
Coming Down the Mountains
To Dare Imagining: Rojava Revolution
★ Ocalan’s Prison Writings
Anarchism, Socialism, Philosophy, and Science:
Start off with:
Government In The Future(Talk) by Noam Chomsky
Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell
On Anarchism by Mikhail Bakunin
The Limits of State Action by Wilhelm von Humboldt
Also Great
Progress Without People: In Defense of Luddism by David F. Noble
Granny Made Me an Anarchist: General Franco, The Angry Brigade and Me by Stuart Christie
Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals' Abuse of Science by Alan Sokal
Beyond the Hoax: Science, Philosophy and Culture by Alan Sokal
A Theory of Power by Jeff Vail
Workers' Councils by Anton Pannekoek
The State: Its Origin and Function by William Paul
On Anarchism by Noam Chomsky
The Anarchist Collectives: Workers' Self-Management in the Spanish Revolution 1936-39 by Sam Dolgoff
Anarchism by Daniel Guerin
The Ancestors Tale by Richard Dawkins
Demon Haunted World by Carl Sagan
Memory and the Computational Brain: Why Cognitive Science WIll Transform Neuroscience by Randy Gallistel and Adam Philip King
Vision: A Computational Investigation Into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information by David Marr
Economics:
Start off with:
★ ★ Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism by Ha-Joon Chang
★ Making Globalization Work by Joseph Stiglitz
Capital in the 21st Century by Thomas Piketty
Adam Smith and His Legacy for Modern Capitalism by Patricia H. Werhane
Also Great:
Democracy at Work: A Cure for Capitalism by Richard Wolff
Das Kapital by Karl Marx
Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith
Affluence and Influence: Economic Inequality and Political Power in America by Martin Gilens
America Beyond Capitalism by Gar Alperovitz
The ABCs of Political Economy: A Modern Approach by Robert Hahnel
★ ★ Golden Rule: The Investment Theory of Party Competition and the Logic of Money-Driven Political Systems by Thomas Ferguson
The Conservative Nanny State: How the Wealthy Use the Government to Stay Rich and Get Richer by Dean Baker
Rigged: How Globalization and the Rules of the Modern Economy Were Structured to Make the Rich Richer by Dean Baker
Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age by Larry M. Bartels
Understanding Capitalism: Critical Analysis From Karl Marx to Amartya Sen by Douglas Down
Whose Crisis, Whose Future?: Towards a Greener, Fairer, Richer World by Susan George
Business as Usual: The Economic Crisis and the Failure of Capitalism by Paul Mattock Jr.
Greening the Global Economy by Robert Pollin
Capitalism: A Ghost Story by Arundhati Roy
Political Economy and Laissez Faire by Rajani Kannepalli Kanth
The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time by Karl Polanyi
Miscellaneous:
★ Discipline and Punish, by Michel Foucault
Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs by Johann Hari
Controlling the Dangerous Classes by Randall G. Shelden
Pedagogy of the Opressed by Paulo Freire
The Verso Book of Dissent: From Spartacus to the Shoe-Thrower of Baghdad by Andrew Hsiao
Don't Mourn, Balkanize!: Essays After Yugoslavia by Andrej Grubačić
★ Field Notes on Democracy: Listening to Grasshoppers by Arundhati Roy
Voices from the Plain of Jars: Life under an Air War by Fred Branfman
We by Yevgeny Zamyatin
In Praise of Barbarians by Mike Davis
Damming the Flood by Peter Hallward
Hope and Folly: The United States and UNESCO, 1945-1985 by Edward Herman and Herbert Schiller
Fanshen: A Documentary of Revolution in a Chinese Village by William Hinton
The Egyptians: A Radical Story by Jack Shenker
Welcome to the Revolution: Universalizing Resistance for Social Justice and Democracy in Perilous Times by Charles Derber
Sociopathic Society: A People’s Sociology of the United States by Charles Derber
The Black Jacobins by C.L.R. James
Dark Money by Jane Meyers
King Leopold's Ghost by Adam Hochschild
Recommended YouTubers/Creators/Channels(with a linked video to get you started):
Political
Contrapoints | America: Still Racist
★ Philosophy Tube | The Philosophy of Antifa
Existential Comics
★ ★ Chomsky’s Philosophy | Bakunin's Predictions
HBomber Guy | Soy Boys: A Measured Response
Shaun | How Privatisation Fails: Railways
Badmouse Productions | Argument ad Venezuelum
Three Arrows | Who is actually at fault for the refugee crisis?
Gravesend Films (with Norman Finkelstein) | The Idea Of Utopia
The Intercept | Greenwald and Risen debate Russiagate
Non Political
Lindsay Ellis - Film Criticism | The Ideology of the First Order
The Great War - History | The Run For The Baku Oil Fields
History Civilis - History | The Constitution Of The Spartans
Numberphile - Mathematics | Perplexing Paperclips
Computerphile - Technology | The Bitcoin Power Problem
Vihart - Mathematics | Hexaflexagons
3Blue1Brown - Mathematics | How Cryptocurrencies Work
PBS SpaceTime - Astronomy, Physics | The Blackhole Information Paradox
Will Schoder - Video Essays | The Problem with Irony and Postmodernism
Assorted Documentaries to get you started:
Manufacturing Consent - The seminal work on how the population is controlled in democratic societies
★ ★ Citizenfour - Edward Snowden, Glenn Greenwald and Laura Poitras in a Hong Kong Room.
★ ★ Risk - A deep look at Wikileaks - from the inside the embassy.
The Murder of Fred Hampton - How the FBI brazenly assassinated an American citizen without any warrant or due process
Weiner - An incredible look at how political campaigns function from the inside.
The Corporation - What are corporations?
The Shock Doctrine - Lectures by Naomi Klein, news-reel footage and analysis to explain the connection between politics and economics.
Hypernormalization - Explains not only why chaotic events happen - but also why we, and politicians, cannot understand them.
Inside Job - A look at the cause for the financial crisis
Podcasts
Start off with:
★ ★ ★ Citations Needed
Also Great:
Intercepted
Current Affairs Podcast
Chapo Trap House
Moderate Rebels
Economic Update
Protect Yourself:
PrivacyToolsIO,
Electronic Frontier Foundation
submitted by -_-_-_-otalp-_-_-_- to chomsky [link] [comments]

What are the benefits of Crypto Mining?

What are the benefits of Crypto Mining?

https://preview.redd.it/q6xfuxvtmjv41.png?width=875&format=png&auto=webp&s=b092bca718f6cba3ae8c327a54952f4e65c7ed25
If you’ve ever heard the word cryptocurrency, then you’ve probably heard about the mining as well. If you still don’t know what cryptocurrency mining is and about profitable, keep reading!
In order to understand crypto mining, you need to fully understand what a cryptocurrency is first. Unlike traditional currencies (aka fiat currency), a cryptocurrency is a digital asset that works in a decentralized way; it does not require a bank or a third-party to operate. Someone can send someone else a cryptocurrency directly without any third-party involved.
The first ever cryptocurrency created was Bitcoin.
Every single cryptocurrency has a blockchain, which is an immutable digital ledger. A single transaction is recorded on the blockchain permanently, which no one can edit or delete it randomly.
A blockchain works by incentivizing miners to confirm the authenticity of each transaction. A person who confirmed the authenticity of the transaction, get the cryptocurrency as a reward.
Since the cryptocurrencies are based on cryptography, the miners need to solve extremely complicated mathematical problems to verify each transaction. They are incentivized to do it because they are rewarded for it.
Anyone can participate in mining from anywhere in the world as long as they have a computer. When the number of miners increases, it allows cryptocurrencies to be more secure. Even if an attacker would want to attack the blockchain network, somehow, an attacker needs to know 51% or more miners. Since the miners are spread around the world, this task is close to impossible and most likely not economically viable.

Types of Crypto Mining

Bitcoin was the first cryptocurrency to introduce the Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus algorithm, where users have to solve complex mathematical problems in order to process transactions and secure the whole network.
Bitcoin was quite easy to mine at first, and you could do it with your CPU, there was no need for special equipment, and the rewards were huge. However, today, Bitcoin’s mining difficulty has increased considerably, and users need specialized and expensive equipment to mine it.
There are four main types of mining when it comes to the PoW algorithm. There is a CPU, GPU, ASIC, and Cloud mining.
The first three are essentially the same, but they use different parts of your computer. There are some cryptocurrencies specifically created to be mined only through CPU and to be ASIC resistant. Other cryptocurrencies can be mined through all three methods.
Cloud mining, on the other hand, is a process where a user basically pays to rent out a mining machine somewhere else. You don’t have to buy the equipment physically but it is wise to carry out due diligence and research into who and what you are paying for.

Proof of Stake ‘Mining’

With the introduction of the Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus algorithm, cryptocurrency mining changed forever. In this case, users don’t have to solve computationally intensive puzzles. In PoS-based cryptocurrencies, the creator of blocks is chosen via random selection or wealth.
Validators in the PoS consensus have to lock up some of their coins as a ‘stake’ and will get rewarded for it.
There are many benefits over the traditional PoW like lower cost and more energy efficiency. Additionally, because PoS encourages users to hold the coin in the wallet, it stabilizes the price a bit more than conventional cryptocurrencies.
Today, you can find plenty of exchanges that support staking, including the most popular exchange, Binance. The safest option, however, is always going to be staking using your own private wallet.

Proof of Formulation ‘Mining’

FLETA has developed the most innovative and newest consensus algorithms known as Proof-of-Formulation (PoF).
This PoF consensus algorithm uses something called the ‘Synchronization Group’, which allows all of the miners to mine in an orderly manner. The generating block time only takes 0.5 seconds, and the observer node checks the irregular blocks in real-time, which prevents the fork and double-spending. Furthermore, FLETA’s PoF algorithm is currently undergoing the patent process through the United States Patent Office (Application Number: 62717695).
The users can easily create a FLETA formulator through the official FLETA wallet. The minimum amount to create a single Formulator is 200,000 FLETA. The blockchain network is operated by FLETA and requires a 6-core CPU or higher.
As you created at least four Formulators, you will be able to upgrade it, which allows you to get 1.3 times more rewards.
Besides creating a Formulator, users can contribute to mining with a minimum amount of 100 FLETA.

Conclusion

Today, various mining methods exist, each with their pros and cons. However, cryptocurrency miners are still craving more convenient (and less costly) ways to earn rewards.
FLETA’s Proof-of-Formulation consensus is not only fast, but it is also highly secure the added layer of protection between observer nodes, formulator, and the synchronization group.
With plenty more to come, in terms of DApp development, games and partnerships, FLETA’s PoF is increasingly becoming the preferred consensus of many developers due to the speed, security and convenience of the platform.
**
submitted by fleta-official to fletachain [link] [comments]

The Dark Side Of Apple

Why you should not use Apple
Censorship
Spying
Worker abuse
Tax avoidance
Right to Repair Phones
Miscellaneous
submitted by Lukun7 to AeterneLabs [link] [comments]

The Post-Coronavirus Economy

THE POST-CORONAVIRUS ECONOMY 02/04/2020
I like to approach looking at economics like a physicist. There are very few maybes in physics. They mention and value going back to first principles when things go wrong. So does architecture, if you find the central idea of your design is lost. That's my background.
If you understand game theory, it's quite apparent that so much of social structure is based on the Prisoner's Dilemma. This mindset seems prevalent also in many philosophical discussions, ancient and modern, such as Nietzsche and Diogenes, framing the human condition / human nature (HN) as being a weakness to overcome. I presume this comes from a mindset to overcome scarcity through dominion and therefore, cultures that reinforce our familiarity with that. However, despite our capacity for creativity and imagination and the absolute evidence that we have been able to overcome nature itself, we still create artificial, synthetic systems that are based on this old framework. We have stepped beyond overcoming natural systems and now play the game of overcoming systems themselves. The trouble is those systems are inherently disempowering because they are still built on fear based game theory that waste the most resources: war, politics, and finance are the most wasteful of all.
Ideas for solutions and the present day, magic bullet or not, are still built on those same fear-based frameworks: to overcome HN. Despite so many people wanting empowered change, we think this is the exception, not the hope of the norm. Such a framework is also familiar to us so it's easy to find solutions within a comfort zone that doesn't really change very much and we may be waiting for a personality to lead us to that change without losing that comfort. Experience from previous and even current political and religious leaders has not led to empowered change. But it is not just large-scale problems. It's also small-scale where businesses are in perpetual debt. These dichotomies make great stories to trickle down for people to tell and write books about, but that doesn't resolve the problems. Many don't want those problems to be solved because there's no money in it.
If we are to be leaders for the world to be a better place, then we must look at practical empowered systems that all people can use with little need for hierarchical goverance or fear. One of the best engineering companies, Arup, are renowned for their 2-level company structure and are renowned for some of the greatest engineering feats globally.
We need to find trust-based systems built on the abundance of our creativity and imagination that includes all things.
If you listen to people discussing authenticity and trust, there is a strong dividing line between someone is being sponsored or the product was bought with their own money. This already shows how powerful exchange really is in driving trust between people, or not. Look at how many YouTubers with their promotions stipulate where the product was given by a company or they bought it from their own money to preempt whether they are being honest or not.
It's interesting to find that in so many solutions put forward for empowered change, the design frameworks of currency are seldom looked into. People may offer new processes for currency and exchange but they are still built on the same usury frameworks that incentivizes people to quantify wealth in terms of money with little regard of what created that money.
My objective here is to offer you a model that incentivises and empowers all people to look at profit and wealth on qualitative frameworks that build trust, in both competitive and collaborative relationships, to value sustainable synergy in creating experiences to empower the most people for all.
During this time with the coronavirus, with this mass devolution of economic empowerment, timed or opportunistic, it's essential to find solutions that don't revolve around panics like this again and be left to still more messengers wanting your sacrifice, confinement and/or self immolation to support the rest.
So, let's get back to first principles. Let's look at the physics of humanity's identity and its relationship with nature, and discover the exchange model framework that supports the sustainable synergy of that to the greatest empowerment possible.
. . . . .
THE FUNDAMENTALS
The objective here is to present a logic and the framework which empowers all people and has no need to compromise. This must be on qualitative terms where there is a dynamic empowered synergy that is adaptable and diverse dependent on location and capacity.
I would find it hard to argue that the most self-actualised empowered people measure their highest wealth is ultimately how we create to empower the most people in the most sustainable way possible, to redundancy. Anything we do, has to support this absolute. It must be structured on the strongest people that possess and act in distributing empowerment to the rest of their community.
From this central idea, we must build a adaptive social framework that incentivises such empowerment in the most constructive way possible.
Let's look at the basic fundamentals to work with:
Human Nature (HN):
Adapts to it's environment. This is the beginning of how we build culture.
In scarcity or abundance, we are valued by the excellence of what we create.
Highest excellence empowers the most people to survive.
Loves something to strive for.
Is the only species that has overcome natures limitations.
Thrives on creative capacity and imagination.
Wants to be remembered.
We want to trust more than fear others. Children are an excellent example of presenting this. Even as adults, we want to trust if we can, particularly government and authority. It's easier.
Wants to be as lazy as it can possibly be to achieve the greatest gain. we always pick the easiest path to get something if it is possible. Whether that is through taking advantage of people, taking the past of least resistance, or being able to create something to make things easier for others, is dependent on the framework that creates the most status and wealth.
When we govern such capacity with frameworks of disempowerment, it divides creative capacity, regardless of whether resources are scarce or abundant. This dissuades logic to empower cohesively and devolved to weakness being prioritised in decision making. We have built a model of exchange and social structures that promote weakness.
Fundamentally, however, all people want to achieve excellence. How we design the framework defines whether that's against other people or with other people.
If you define something about human nature on a negative framework, then it is more important to look at yourself and ask what is lacking in yourself to think such a thing.
Environment (E):
Resources are always scarce, but our creative capacity is limitless.
Resources only those that are useful to the central idea.
For resources to be their most plentiful, natural symbioses between them must be maintained and regenerative. Any adaptive social framework must support this.
Social Frameworks (SF)
How we value wealth define status.
How we govern defines status.
It doesn't matter whether it's from a disempowered or empowered framework, all that matters is how well we do that to achieve status with our greatest self-security in mind. If a framework is built around scarcity, then mainstream status will always be based on the success of overcoming this. If it is based on abundance, then mainstream status will be based on the best to cultivate that.
Fear drives separation. Joy drives integration.
We are also more likely to trust someone who offers an opportunity to overcome fear. This is most apparent in times of desperation. This usually doesn't end well.
if social frameworks are built around fear, then it only establishes the fear. It does not overcome it.
Money/Currency/Exchange (M)
Money doesn't exist unless we create something and somebody wants it. If there is nothing to buy, money is meaningless.
People's capacity to create is the real money. If we do nothing, there is no economy. Therefore, money must be directly based on the work people do. Basing money on something outside of that disconnects that basic fundamental.
Wealth is not money if there is nothing to buy. Therefore, money is always servant to peoples' capacities to create.
There are only three money structures to define and work with: usury (positive cost), demarrage (negative cost) and neutral (no cost). What defines which are empowering or not are dependent on how much is available, how it's distributed, I know if it is based on the work of people or something else.
Usury does not mean exorbitant cost. If this was the case, then there is an undefined band of money which is little cost. This seems to be conveniently swept under the carpet. It also implies that it cost on currency is fundamental. It isn't. Anyone that promotes such a definition of exorbitant cost and/or interest is not interested in sustainable synergy solutions.
Basing currency on something outside of work incentivises using it as a commodity of its own value. Basing it on work makes this impossible with the right parameters.
Cryptocurrencies are not different to any other mainstream currency if it follows the same frameworks as usury currency. it is just the same thing delivered a different way. Bitcoin is quite different to every other alternate currency due to specific parameters that made it difficult to continue as an exchange mechanism versus a store of value that many people have tried to overcome. This brought on ICO commodity boom that was purely fictitious, totally missing the larger picture that Bitcoin wanted to present. That again shows how powerful changing currency can be for sustainable empowered change.
Here are the parameters to scrutinise:
What is it based on?
Is the volume infinite or finite?
How is that volume distributed?
Is there a cost?
There are also only three frameworks of currency cost:
Usury (any interest or fee)
Demurrage
No cost (neutral).
Unfortunately, we have been dealing with usury currency as a commodity for as long as humanity can remember and built our understanding of human nature from that. It is built on the framework of disempowering social structures that Prisoner's Dilemma game theory succinctly presents. It defines HN as a prisoner by default. Why? Money has almost always been created from violence and disempowerment to gain dominion to combat scarcity. David Graeber's book Debt: The First 5000 Years, establishes this. Usury currency has always been connected to political power disempowering people, regardless of whether it's capitalist or communist or anything in between. The only difference has been from the people who choose to have status to empower or disempower. As most democracies separate currency from governance, politics will not change anything unless you change fundamental frameworks to incentivize leadership to support people by default.
What usury currency and the Prisoner's Dilemma really demonstrate is that we trust what people tell us to overcome our fears and we try and trust what they say because we're told we cannot trust ourselves. So we choose to accept fighting disempowerment rather than leveraging empowerment because we are led to believe it's easier to follow then be an independent peer competing and collaborating for the greater good.
It seems the human condition is that a gravitates to fear and not trust itself instead of the opposite. That's quite different to defining human nature that objectifies humanity to be perpetually bad and need to be saved from itself.
This is beyond ethics and virtue to be prevalent in creating empowering frameworks. It is more relevant to incentivise the ethics of excellence in empowering frameworks. It seems some people mistake the word excellence to mean self against others. No one achieves excellence without the help of others and so in-kind excellence supports excellence. That is the highest ethic.
. . . . .
BUXB
It is here that I will present the parameters of the buxbi model and how it languages and incentivises people to want to be sustainable in the creativity regardless of their personality. It takes out the argument of whether humanity needs to be saved or not. It takes out objectifying people being good or bad, true or not. What they create and why will define whether they are worth your time. If they're not doing their best to create experience is to empower the most people, including yourself, in the most sustainable way possible to redundancy, then they are not going to be efficient with your time to warrant it.
BUXB means Be yoU eXchange Bank. The denomination of currency is 'bux'. The parameters of bux are as such:
It is created by the exchange of work between at least two people. If nothing is done there are no bux.
As a result, no money is created independently of work done. BUXB is not able to be bought by other currencies.
Total exchanges balance to zero, except in regards to education. In such a case, all people participating in an education platform are paid by the bank.
The bank's deficit is the positive of education that is happening in the community. The volume and type of transactions recorded by the bank, irrespective of the amount, will show what interests the community or communities involved. This is transparent for everyone to see to know where to best use their energy, to the individual's greatest interest.
No one is forced to exchange with another person if they choose not to.
What people choose to create to exchange is transparent to everyone else in the community. again, this is to inform not just the community what has the greatest benefit to create but also the interest of the person in wanting to create it. It will also establish how good day are at it which only promotes them more.
People are free to give what they wish and record it in the bank if they want to.
If someone chooses to keep a transaction a secret, for whatever reason, they are welcome.
the bank exists simply as a ledger of exchange and amount of what people choose to create. It cannot create any currency whatsoever. Anyone working for the bank is paid by the bank. There are no taxes taxes from the community to run it.
Community projects are mandated by direct democracy which people at BUXB manage. The only advantage 4 people both at the bank and the community Ark pick the projects that best support empowering the most people in the most sustainable way possible to redundancy. Since this is the case, there is no compromise between self interest and the community. On a project being decided on, the best people who can do that most efficiently will be the people that will be paid. Such civil or community costs will be covered by the bank.
the bank is not a separate entity or corporation or business that requires profit. It is simply a quantitative record of exchange between people in the community and communities that use the same currency.
To overcome any misconceptions that charging more would mean more wealth, no one can be paid more than 60bux an hour. As prices of products are based on the amount of work that people do, there is a natural incentive of the price mechanism to fall for everything while quality increases. This establishes that products and services of higher quality cost less.
There is no loss of a free-market. The natural consequence of presenting ideas to the community to use their time in the most efficient way possible to effectively empower others in the most sustainable possible to no longer at needing to be required is the incentive for people to give their time to such ideas. Competing ideas will be based on those parameters. If there is a conflict of which idea is better, the natural consequence of this is either consensus to follow one project or for both projects to work concurrently to find out which is best. This is still the most efficient means of using resources instead of conflict in resolving who is better without actually have any experience to know and learn from doing what the idea of say they were going to.
Resources that people own using BUXB are not taking away from them. they only become available as they see fit while they become more comfortable and empowered using a model that has more options. It will become plain to realise that trying to find ways to look after properties you own when people are more independent is more difficult but you gain more connecting with people with what they make and don't lose your comfort for your security a,d experience; you gain it a different way
Any business built by many people will have a part of the business in some way to attain part of that future profit. But as the price mechanism is quite different in BUXB, participants would game or by selling products at the price that it took to make it. Ask the price will be quite different to what it would be in usery currency, the real value is that quality increases ice prices fall.
The true currency really is people's status in creating quality. The price is simply a transition mechanism as people become more comfortable to qualitative framework to value status.
Controversially, an example of how BUXB would work in the community is the intentional community mentioned and discussed in the end of Ayn Rand's book Atlas Shrugged. Entrepreneurs in her book get a bad rap but, as usual, we trust the messenger that delivers fear instead of logic. To say that entrepreneurs are bad because they are self-interested egoists is saying to love and improve yourself is bad.there should be no difference between an entrepreneur and a person. I must stipulate that saying an entrepreneur is an opportunist is incorrect. Whether we are people alone or together creating, the objectives of creating experience it's to empower the most people in the most stainboy possible to redundancy is the absolute objective to warrant any idea, and the work to do it, to be valued in its highest esteem.
It is plainly clear that her hero entrepreneurs create the best for the least price. all value the quality of their work, and the people that do it not just for but with them. They are not just the entrepreneurs but the politicians we would like to see. They respect everyone who respects themselves in being their best. This is priceless. It is only in that intentional community where they can negate the disempowerment of compromised social structures and usury currency for the greater good. In this intentional community, we can focus purely on what her hero entrepreneur is a truly like. They are mindful empowered selfish creators self aware enough to create their best for the greater good. Any bastardisation of that interpretation has been made rampant by the wannabes. Alan Greenspan, a frequent guest at Ayn Rand's social events, is the epitome of the second-handers she despises.
All her heroes are interested in education first, to offer the opportunity for everyone to be their best at what interests them. Hank Reardon makes the best alloy at the cheapest price than his competitors. Dagny runs the best railroad. Hiring a vehicle for $0.05 for the day. Who has the car is not important. All her hero entrepreneurs value creating the highest quality for the best price they can. All got their hands dirty being on the ground to experience the knowledge to be their best for those that will know better. In a commodity-driven world of wealth, there will always be the compromise between what to pay oneself vs the people under you doing the work. And the absolute genius to present how different this is in Ayn Rand's intentional community is the bank.
Midas turned everything into gold. In business, everyone he backed succeeded. When he leaves to join the intentional community, he balanced his books to zero. Rand's subjective in pointing this out is Midas left without owing or being owed anything. That in itself is an extraordinary feat in a usury world. Arguably, if that were truly possible, this could only happen in a currency with no cost. It would be interesting to analyse that. But in the microcosm of the intentional community, Midas is picking the best in a barrel. They're all good. They all want to be better. Interestingly, the means of exchange is in gold. This can bring up whether people a mining for gold for currency or as a resource. What's more important is that the main purpose of Midas in the intentional community is simply being the creator of the means of exchange. There is no possible need or means or requirement to add any cost to the currency in such a community. It would be absolutely pointless. His objective is to create enough velocity of exchange as required. It is just he would, but he can only, only, give money to those who are the best at perpetuating empowerment. No one else is living there. Further, it is not required to compete with whom may have a car to lend or not as there is no need to create more cars if none are really required. There will be enough business for everyone until more cars required; then the best most sustainable people will make it, customised on demand. No one in the community would be bothered to make them if they are not needed. The ultimate empowerment in such an intentional community is no one is owned by anybody else and doesn't do anything for anybody unless they want to. Consequently they all do their very best for self and all because there's no better option. That is what selfish really means.
Many say these ideas of economies will not work at scale but understand we are in economic models that create so much for nothing. There is so much waste that is not sold. That's not efficient or useful or sustainable or empowering for anybody. So what is created is dependent on the creativity also of the means of production but not for the sake of the economy, but the community. It is easy to create a Tesla production line that can be powered on demand if another vehicle is required and then turn it off again. Cars need not be bought but rented as needed. Any alternative to sharing resources is far more efficient than the waste usury currency economies create.
People will assume and say that such ideas can only work in small communities. but the whole global market is a series of small communities connected together. What matters more are how sustainably they connect for the greatest benefit of all that lived there. I'm not just talking about humanity. Any human would know that if they want to at least survive, they must respect the environment.
When a person says human nature or the human condition is inherently bad; when they say it cannot work at scale, they are only presenting the weakness in themselves.
And this brings up the alignment of ethics and excellence. If we go back to first principles, this sphere of .ethics is very much built around the game theory of the prisoner's dilemma: people are not to be trusted and there will always be compromise. There will always be compromise if solution is not possible but to mitigate that is not built on rights or privilege or social standing in themselves. It is built on excellence. That is the highest ethic. What do we create to empower people and the environment without compromise for the greater good without self-immolation? You do want to live, right? The idea of self immolation as many religions value as a way to relinquish the weakness of human capacity is the largest most init oxymoron of human identity I could possibly imagine.
The final book to establish the ultimate empowerment of excellence is Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. This is, incredibly, a seriously underrated book. it overcomes the duality and weakness we are presented with over and over again in being human and presents a simple monoism without making it a religion or a deity to follow. What Robert Pirsig makes abundantly clear with his first hand experience teaching his classes in Bozeman, Montana, is quantifying results disempowers people to create excellence and leverage empowerment. It is only when he conceals the marks that he must give because of the system he lives in that the students do their best independent work. Quality may be compared but it has no price. When quality is based on creating empowerment, there is no price-to-value such status. There is no greater wealth. We tell stories about people who have overcome the system. But why do we enforce a disempowering system to overcome? Do you think we will have no story to tell past the point of fear?
Look at the work you are doing an ask yourself if it can attain the absolute of empowering the most people in the most sustainable way possible to redundancy. Ask yourself if you are attached to the object of the work you were doing as the status in itself, or it is truly a trajectory to reach that ultimate goal of self and community empowerment.
If your work is based on the mindset of believes that the bigger picture is full of bad people to overcome, if it is based on absolute scarcity, if it is based on the character for people to follow and not the idea itself that can be given freely to empower, then you're not being honest and it won't work and it isn't worth doing. Who is it that said doing the same thing the same way leads the same results? While you argue for empowerment and freedom on frameworks of weakness, this reinforces itself. If you really want to do something different, you must change the way you value yourself. It's got nothing to do with commodity currencies.
BUXB itself would become redundant in the same way that currency almost is in Ayn Rand's intentional community (ARIC?). Other pioneers believe completely moving forward past quantified exchange would be impossible. But it is certainly achievable. Look at Trekonomics. No one buys the Replicator. It replicates for free, on demand. Wealth is in the discovery of empowering all people to do the same.
We are not all heroes, but in BUXB, you are fully supported to be the creator you want to explore. A master does not hide his evolution of being. He welcomes your interest, but what you do with it is your opportunity to be your own master. Not in ritual, not in obedience, but in creating to empower the most people the best way you can. And if you prefer to follow the master, that's fine, too. However, the fear of fearing people for their objective in connecting with you is allayed in every transaction. There is no need to swindle anyone participating in the BUXB. that would be the equivalent of shooting yourself in the foot. Instead that could alienate you. more likely, he would would look at you strangely saying 'You can be paid to be educated. What on earth are you thinking?'
If you are absolutely dogmatic to want resolution to the object of renewable eenegy, climate change, overpopulation, modern monetary theory, steady state economies, degrowth, sustainability/regeneration, environmental/ecological/resource-based economics, discrimination, crime, slavery, famine, without looking at revaluing wealth on qualitative frameworks, then you are playing the object of being a changemaker, an activist, an icon for something better without actually changing anything. There's a long list of that. Another story to tell doing the same thing the same way and not getting any results. If you feel I have an attachment to 'BUXB', then you're looking at me, not the model. Wrong target. It is a tool for you, not against you. And it's free.
It has the means to achieve whatever empowered endgame you want. All I have done is change the currency model framework and revalue wealth for what it really is.
Not that complicated.
In this short time during the coronavirus, it's clear we can act fast globally if we want to. Let's try to do it with something empowering instead of disempowering as a means towards identity.
Frederick Malouf
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EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE FROM COINEX

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE FROM COINEX

to Cryptocurrencies: LTC, the most famou
Written by the CoinEx Institution, this series of jocular and easy to understand articles will show you everything you need to know about major cryptocurrencies, making you fully prepared before jumping into crypto!
The LTC we are going to talk about today is Litecoin, one famous “altcoin”. Why is it called “altcoin”? That’s because it is a copy of BTC, sharing the same technical implementation principle. Legend even has it that “if the Bitcoin is gold, then Litecoin is silver.”
However, what makes LTC stand out from many other altcoins? Let’s take a closer look.
In early years, the popularity of BTC brought about a large number of “copycats”, which sprang up like mushrooms. Only a few of them have survived. As of now, there are at least 30 altcoins around the world, such as the Litecoin, Primecoin, Biocoin, Ripple, ZCC Coin, and Megacoin. Among them LTC took the lead as the most famous altcoin.
The creator of LTC is Charlie Lee, a talent who graduated from MIT and used to work at Google. Inspired by BTC, he designed LTC in 2011.
Although LTC technically has the same implementation principle as BTC, both its creation and transfer are based on an open source encryption protocol, free from custody of any central authority; however, it is different from BTC in that it enables efficient “mining” and faster transaction confirmation even with consumer-grade hardware (2.5 minutes on average). It is said that the LTC network is expected to produce 84 million monetary units.
An “altcoin” as it is, LTC has its own mission and purpose, which is to improve BTC. Moreover, LTC is considered as “the cryptocurrency that has most successfully improved Bitcoin algorithm.”
Compared with BTC, LTC has three significant features:
  1. The LTC network can process one block every 2.5 minutes (instead of 10 minutes), so it can provide faster transaction confirmation;
  2. The LTC network is expected to produce 84 million LCT, four times the amount of BTC;
  3. LTC uses the scrypt encryption algorithm first proposed by Colin Percival in its proof-of-work algorithm, which makes it easier to mine LTC on ordinary computers than BTC.
In other words, compared with the cryptocurrency system of BTC, LTC has faster transaction confirmation, higher network transaction capacity and efficiency. Therefore, LTC was able to stand out from many “copycats”.
Some BTC players once said: “If you can’t afford Bitcoin, try Litecoin.” The BTC rush has attracted many, and its counterparts, i.e. these “altcoins” represented by LTC, have gone viral as well. According to data from overseas media, the low price of LTC has made China the largest market for LTC transactions. CoinEx, a world-renowned digital asset trading service platform, supports LTC trading, attracting numerous investors to gain wealth.
Charlie Lee, founder of LTC, once liquidated LTC in December 2017, “a crazy action” as it was known in the field. He suggested on social media that he had sold and donated all his own LTC yet without providing more details on the quantity and price of the sale.
At that time, LTC took on a clear upward momentum as its price once soared to $ 375 before Charlie Lee’s liquidation, an increase of 7000% compared to the beginning of the year. Some investors have wondered if it was because Charlie Lee had lost confidence in the future of LTC that he decided to quit. After his liquidation, both LTC and BTC slumped in 2018, sending the cryptocurrency market to a recession.
After the liquidation of LTC, Charlie Lee suggested in an interview that he “regrets selling all Litecoin” because the selling price at that time was lower than the highest level in history in the short run, but he still believed that was a correct decision in the long run. He also mentioned that he would leave this industry after LTC’s success.
In what direction will LTC go in the future? Stay tuned. If you have any idea, please follow CoinEx and let us know.
About CoinEx
As a global and professional cryptocurrency exchange service provider, CoinEx was founded in December 2017 with Bitmain-led investment and has obtained a legal license in Estonia. It is a subsidiary brand of the ViaBTC Group, which owns the fifth largest BTC mining pool, which is also the largest of BCH mining, in the world.
CoinEx supports perpetual contract, spot, margin trading and other derivatives trading, and its service reaches global users in nearly 100 countries/regions with various languages available, such as Chinese, English, Korean and Russian.
Website: https://www.coinex.com/
Twitter: https://twitter.com/coinexcom
Telegram: https://t.me/CoinExOfficialENG
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